Variables in COBOL
- A variable is an identifier to hold a particular value or data. It identifies a memory location.
- In COBOL variables are called as Data Names.
- It can be a maximum length of 30 characters.
- Variable must contain only digits(0-9), letters(A-Z), minus sign and Hyphens(-).
- A Variable must not be a reserved word of COBOL.
- A Variable should not contain any space in between, start or at end of the variable name.
Example of Variables
Examples of valid Variables are –
Examples of in-valid Variables are –
- 123_ABC – It does not allow Hyphen
- ACCEPT – This is a reserved word in COBOL
- ABC) – It does not allow Special characters
In the diagram which is shown below, we can see how variables are defined in COBOL.
Literals in COBOL
a) Literals are constants in COBOL. And it is directly hard-coded in the program
b) Literals are of 2 types-
- Numeric literal allows a maximum of 18 numbers. Valid values allowed are
- 0 to 9 (any number)
- One sign only( either + or -) which has to be used in left side only
- One decimal only(do not use at the end)
Example – 123
Non-Numeric( Alphanumeric) literal
- Maximum 160 characters in length
- Must start and end with quotes
Example – “I AM AN EXAMPLE OF NON-NUMERIC LITERAL” ‘123’
Figurative Constants in COBOL
In COBOL Figurative Constants is reserved words. And these constants are predefined(build in) in COBOL.
Don’t use HIGH-VALUE/HIGH-VALUES/LOW-VALUE/LOW-VALUES with numeric fields